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Bài mẫu ôn luyện kỹ năng Reading và hướng dẫn giải bài tập.

Thứ Sáu - 06.01.2017

Đối với bài thi luyện kỹ năng Reading này, các bạn sẽ gặp các dạng câu hỏi: Multiple choice, sentence completion questions, short answer questions, T/F/NG questions, summany completion question, đây là những dạng bài thường xuyên xuất hiện trong các bài thi IELTS. Để có thể trả lời đúng các câu hỏi được đưa ra, bắt buộc các bạn phải vận dụng các kỹ năng đọc như: Scanning, skimming, paraphrasing, identifying specific information... Hôm nay, bạn hãy vận dụng các kỹ năng này để luyện tập với bài Reading sau đây nhé!

Fifty-five delegates representing all thirteen states except Rhode Island attended the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia from May to September 1787. The delegates had been instructed by the Continential Congress to revise the old Articles off Confederation, but most believed that a strong central government was needed. There were differences, however, about what structure the government should take and how much influence large states should have. 

Virginia was by far the most populous state, wtih twice as many as people as New York, four times as many as New Jersey and ten times as many as Delaware. The leader of the Virginia delegation, James Madison, had already drawn up a plan for government, which become known as the Large State Plan. It is essence was that congressional representation would be based on population. It provided for two or more national executives. The smaller states feared that under this plan, a few large states would lord over the rest. New Jersey countered with the Small State Plan. It provided for equal representation for all states in a national legistature and for a singer national executive. Angry debate, heightened by a stifling heat wave, lead to deadlock. 

A cooling of tempers seemed to come with lower temperatures. The delegates harmmered out an agreement known as the Great Compromise - actually a bundle of shrewd compromises. They decided that Congress would consist of two houses. The larger states were granted representation based on population in the lower house, the House of Representatives. The smaller states were given equal representation in the upper house, the Senate, in which each state would have two senators regardless of population. It was also agreed that there would be a singer executive, the president. This critical compromise broke the logjam, and from then on, success seemed within reach. 

QUESTIONS: 

Question 1: What is the main topic of this passage?

A. James Madison's plan to create a stable structure for the government of the United States.

B. A disagreement at the Constititional Convention and a subsequent compromise.

C. The differences in population and relative power between the original states.

D. The most important points of the Small State Plan. 

Question 2: According to the passage, how many states were represented at the Constututional Convention?

A: Twelve

B: Thirteen

C: Fourteen

D: Fifty-five

Question 3: It can be inferred from the passage that the Articles of Confederation...........

A: Were supported by a majority of the delegates at the Convention.

B: Were revised and presented as the Large State Plan.

C: Allowed small states to dominate large ones

D: Provided for only a weak central government/

Question 4: According to the passage, in the 1787 which of the following states had the FEWEST people?

A: Virgina

B: Delaware

C: New York

D: New Jersey

Question 5: In line 20, the phrase this plan refers to ..........

A: The Small State Plan

B: a plan suggested by the national legislature

C: The Large State Plan

D: A compromise plan

Question 6: According to the passage, the weather had what effect on the Constitutional Convention?

A: Hot weather intensified the debate while cooler weather brought compromise

B: Bad weather prevented some of the delegates from reaching Philadelphia.

C: Delegates hurried to achieve an agreement before winter arrived. 

D: Cold temperatures made Independence Hall an uncomfortable place to work.

Question 7: The word SHREWD in line 27 is closest in meaning to ......

A: Pratical 

B: Unfair

C: Important

D: Clever

Question 8: Which of the following is NOT GIVEN in the passage as one of the provisions of the Great Compromise?

A: There would be only one national executive

B: The president would be elected by popular vote

C: Each state would have two senators

D: Congress would be divided into two bodies.

Question 9: The author uses the phrase broke the logjam to indicate that ....

A: The government was nearly bankrupt

B: Some major problems had been solved

C: The Convention came to a sudden end

D: The situation had become desperate

 

HƯỚNG DẪN GIẢI ĐÁP CHI TIẾT: 

Question 1: What is the main topic of this passage?

A. James Madison's plan to create a stable structure for the government of the United States.

B. A disagreement at the Constititional Convention and a subsequent compromise.

C. The differences in population and relative power between the original states.

D. The most important points of the Small State Plan. 

Giải đáp: 

Đoạn 1: "There were differences, however, about what structure the government should take and how much influence large states should have." (Tuy nhiên lại có rất nhiều ý kiến khác nhau về việc nên tạo kết cấu chính phủ như thế nào và những bang lớn sẽ có tầm ảnh hưởng lớn như thế nào".

Đoạn 3: "The delegates harmmered out an agreement known as the Great Compromise - actually a bundle of shrewd compromises". (Những đại biểu đã đi đến thỏa thuận được biết đến như là một cuộc thỏa hiệp lớn)

Question 2: According to the passage, how many states were represented at the Constututional Convention?

A: Twelve

B: Thirteen

C: Fourteen

D: Fifty-five

Giải đáp: 

Đáp án nằm ở đầu đoạn 1: "Fifty-five delegates representing all thirteen states except Rhode Island attended the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia from May to September 1787". (55 đại biểu đại diện cho 13 bang ngoại trừ Rhode Island tham dự hội nghị theo Hiến Pháp)

Question 3: It can be inferred from the passage that the Articles of Confederation...........

A: Were supported by a majority of the delegates at the Convention.

B: Were revised and presented as the Large State Plan.

C: Allowed small states to dominate large ones

D: Provided for only a weak central government.

Giải đáp: 

Trong đoạn đầu bạn sẽ thấy câu: "The delegates had been instructed by the Continential Congress to revise the old Articles off Confederation, but most believed that a strong central government was needed". (Những đại biểu đã được hướng dẫn bởi Quốc hội liên bang để chỉnh lại các bài viết của liên minh, nhưng hầu hết đều tin rằng một chính phủ trung tâm mạnh mẽ hơn là cần thiết). Ta có thể suy ra rằng: The Articles of Convention cũ điều hành một chính phủ yếu kém nên mới cần phải được chỉnh sửa lại và cần có một chính phủ mạnh mẽ hơn. 

Question 4: According to the passage, in the 1787 which of the following states had the FEWEST people?

A: Virgina

B: Delaware

C: New York

D: New Jersey

Giải đáp: 

Mở đầu đoạn 2 ta có thể thấy câu: "Virginia was by far the most populous state, wtih twice as many as people as New York, four times as many as New Jersey and ten times as many as Delaware". (Virginia là bang đông dân nhất, gấp đôi số dân của New York, gấp 4 lần số dân của New Jersey và gấp mười lần Delaware). 

Question 5: In line 20, the phrase this plan refers to ..........

A: The Small State Plan

B: a plan suggested by the national legislature

C: The Large State Plan

D: A compromise plan

Giải đáp: 

Trong đoạn 2: "The leader of the Virginia delegation, James Madison, had already drawn up a plan for government, which become known as the Large State Plan. It is essence was that congressional representation would be based on population. It provided for two or more national executives. The smaller states feared that under this plan, a few large states would lord over the rest". (Người đứng đầu ở Virginial, ông James Madison đã phác thảo một kế hoạch lớn cho chính phủ, cái mà được biết đến như là kế hoạch Bang lớn... Những bang nhỏ hơn sợ rằng theo kế hoạch này, chỉ một vài bang lớn sẽ thống trị số còn lại). 

Question 6: According to the passage, the weather had what effect on the Constitutional Convention?

A: Hot weather intensified the debate while cooler weather brought compromise

B: Bad weather prevented some of the delegates from reaching Philadelphia.

C: Delegates hurried to achieve an agreement before winter arrived. 

D: Cold temperatures made Independence Hall an uncomfortable place to work.

Giải đáp: 

Khi sử dụng kỹ năng scaning và skimming trong bài bạn sẽ thấy câu hỏi này đáp áp nằm trong câu cuối đoạn 2 và câu đầu đoạn 3:"Angry debate, heightened by a stifling heat wave, lead to deadlock. A cooling of tempers seemed to come with lower temperatures.". (Cuộc họp trở nên căng thẳng, đẩy lên cao trào bởi không khí nóng bức ngộp thở và đi vào bế tắc. Sự dịu đi không khí căng thẳng dường như đến cùng với nhiệt độ thấp hơn)

Question 7: The word SHREWD in line 27 is closest in meaning to ......

A: Pratical 

B: Unfair

C: Important

D: Clever

Giải đáp: 

Các bạn hãy xem xét câu: "The delegates harmmered out an agreement known as the Great Compromise - actually a bundle of shrewd compromises". (Những đại biểu đã đi đến thỏa thuận được biết đến như là Cuộc thỏa hiệp lớn - thực tế là những điều kiện thỏa hiệp khôn khéo). 

Question 8: Which of the following is NOT GIVEN in the passage as one of the provisions of the Great Compromise?

A: There would be only one national executive

B: The president would be elected by popular vote

C: Each state would have two senators

D: Congress would be divided into two bodies.

Giải đáp: 

Câu hỏi được đưa ra: Trong những dòng sau đây dòng nào không được nói đến trong bài văn "là một trong những điều khoản của kế hoạch Thỏa hiệp lớn?".

Nhiệm vụ của bạn chính là tìm trong bài những câu có keywords (ở những câu trên) nằm trong đoạn nào ở trên bài đọc. 

Bạn sẽ thấy ở đoạn 3 của bài có câu: "The delegates harmmered out an agreement known as the Great Compromise - actually a bundle of shrewd compromises. They decided that Congress would consist of two houses. The larger states were granted representation based on population in the lower house, the House of Representatives. The smaller states were given equal representation in the upper house, the Senate, in which each state would have two senators regardless of population. It was also agreed that there would be a singer executive, the president." (Những đại biểu đã đi tới thỏa thuận được biết đến như là cuộc Thỏa hiệp lớn - thực tế là nwhuxng điều kiện thỏa hiệp khôn khéo. Họ quyết định rằng Quốc hội sẽ gồm có hai nhà nước ... Trong đó mỗi bang sẽ có 2 thượng nghị sĩ bất luận dân số. Nó cũng được đồng ý là chỉ có một người lãnh đạo là Tổng thống". 

Question 9: The author uses the phrase broke the logjam to indicate that ....

A: The government was nearly bankrupt

B: Some major problems had been solved

C: The Convention came to a sudden end

D: The situation had become desperate

Giải đáp: 

Ở câu cuối đoạn 3 bạn sẽ thấy câu: "This critical compromise broke the logjam, and from then on, success seemed within reach". (Sự thỏa thuận này đã giải quyết hết các vấn đề trước đó, và từ đó trở đi thành công dường như trong tầm tay).